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Process Measure Mindset

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The Process Mindset Measure (PMM) is a one-factor scale developed by Crum, Boles, DeSousa & Markus (in prep) to assess mindsets about the process of becoming or maintaining good health. The PMM captures beliefs about difficulty/ease, un/pleasurable, relaxing/stressful, in/convenient, boring/fun, lonely/social, and indulgent/depriving nature of the process of maintaining good health.

The scale can be administered to adults who are fluent in English and is appropriate for both healthy and chronically ill populations. It can be used as a general scale by using the term health (as below) or as a domain-specific scale by replacing this term with specific activities aiding in health like exercising or eating.


Click here to download the Process Mindset Measure.

Permission to Use 

Please reach out to us at for permission to use the PMM in your research. 

Papers Using the Process Mindset Measure

*Boles, D. Z., DeSousa, M., *Turnwald, B. P., *Horii, R. I, *Duarte, T., *Zahrt, O. H., Markus, H. R., & Crum, A. J. (2021). Can exercising and eating healthy be fun and indulgent instead of boring and depriving? Targeting mindsets about the process of engaging in healthy behaviors. Frontiers in Psychology. (DOWNLOAD) | (VIEW ON PUBLISHER'S SITE)